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access chamber. An opening into the ground from which drains can be inspect- ed and rodded or cleaned out, both towards and away from a building, also acting as a junction into which the drainage from other plumbing fixtures may discharge into the horizontal drain.
accessible. In reference to a plumbing fixture, appliance, equipment or connec- tion:  easily  reached,  though  the  use  of  tools  may  be  required  to  remove  an access panel or open a door.
air break. A physical separation between any pipe and receptor through the free atmosphere. The separation may be below the flood level of the receptor but above the trap seal.
air gap. A physical separation between a safe drinking-water system and above the  flood  level  of  the  receptor.  The  separation  should  be  at  least  twice  the supply pipe diameter, but never less that 25 millimetres (1 inch).
authority. An individual official, board, ministry or other political entity estab- lished and authorized by governmental sanction or a specific law enacted by a governing body that confers statutory powers to formulate and enforce a code of practice for plumbing.
backflow. The reversing of the normal flow of water or other substances into the drinking-water distribution system from any unintended source.
backpressure.  The  reversing  of  normal  flow  resulting  from  a  pressure  down- stream that is higher than the supply pressure in the distribution piping of a drinking-water supply system.

backsiphonage. The reversing of normal flow resulting from negative or subatmos- pheric pressures in the distribution piping of a drinking-water supply system. backwater valve. A device for preventing sewage or drainage water from flowing back into a building in the event of flooding or sewer blockage.
black  water.  Combined  domestic  effluent  including  liquid  and  solid  human body waste and the water discharged from toilet usage.
building drain. The lowest part of a building drainage system where the drain- age pipes meet and convey the discharge from within the walls or footings of any building to the building sewer. Also called house drain. See also combined building drain; sanitary building drain.
building sewer. That part of the horizontal piping of a drainage system that ex- tends from the end of the building drain and that receives the discharge of the
building drain and conveys it to a public sewer, private sewer, private sewage disposal system or other point of disposal. Also called house sewer. See also combined building sewer; sanitary building sewer; storm building sewer.
building  subdrain.  That  portion  of  a  drainage  system  that  does  not  drain  by gravity into the building sewer. Also called house subdrain.
check valve. A valve that allows the flow of a liquid in only one direction but closes when the normal direction of flow is reversed.
cistern. A vessel open at the top to the atmosphere used to hold a supply of cold drinking-water.
cleaning eye. Same as access chamber.
colour marking. The marking of pipes and fittings with different colours to des- ignate the application of the product and to assist installers in identification and prevention of cross-connections.
combined building drain. A building drain that conveys both sewage and storm water or other drainage.
combined building sewer. A building sewer that conveys both sewage and storm water or other drainage.
conservation. The preservation and protection of natural resources.

corrosion. A surface reaction causing a gradual erosion of the material affected. cross-connection. Any physical connection or arrangement between two other- wise  separate  piping systems  or  containment  means,  one  of  which  contains potable  water,  and  the  other  water  or  fluid  of  unknown  or  questionable safety.
disinfection. Killing or rendering harmless microbial contaminants by chemical or physical processes.
downpipe  or  downspout.  A  vertical  drainage  pipe  for  conveying  storm  water from the roof or gutter drains.
drain. Any pipe that carries waterborne waste in a building drainage system. See also building drain; storm drain; subsoil drain.
drainage system. All the piping within public or private premises that conveys sewage or other liquid wastes to a point of disposal. It does not include the mains  of  a  public  sewer  system  or  a  public  sewage  treatment  or  disposal plant.
drain cock. A valve, usually installed in the lowest portion of a piping system or vessel, that controls the flow of liquid from the system or vessel. Also called drain valve.
dual system. A situation in which a second plumbing system is installed along- side  the  system  for  provision  of  drinking-water.  An  example  is  a  potable drinking-water system and a greywater system in the same facility.
electrolysis. A chemical change that occurs when an electric current is generated by the connection of two different metals, either directly or via an electrolyte solution.
fixture. See plumbing fixture.
fixture unit. An arbitrarily chosen scale or quantity that represents the load of a fixture on a drainage system. One fixture unit was originally established as
7.5 imperial (UK) gallons = 9 US gallons = 34 litres per minute discharge by gravity through a fixture.
flammable waste. Waste that is easily ignited and will burn.
float valve. A valve that operates by means of a bulb or ball floating on the sur- face of a liquid in a tank or container. The rise and fall action operates a lever, which opens and closes the valve.
flushometer  valve.  A  device  activated  by  direct  water  pressure  to  discharge  a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.
frost protection. Methods, such as burial or insulation, used to protect against freezing of pipes or fixtures.
grease interceptor. A device, usually outside a building, that retains grease and prevents it passing into the sewerage system.
grease  trap.  A  grease  interceptor  installed  inside  a  facility,  usually  near  the grease-producing fixtures.
green water. Reclaimed water that has been treated to a standard, suitable for general  domestic  non-potable  applications.  It  may  be  identified  through inclusion of a green dye and supplied through a dedicated colour-coded pipe- work system.
greywater. Water that has already been used for bathing, washing, laundry or dishwashing, but does not contain excreta.
indirect connections. Waste piping that discharges into a receptor or interceptor through an air break or air gap into the drainage system.
industrial  waste.  Liquid  or  waterborne  waste  from  industrial  or  commercial processes.
inspection chamber. Same as access chamber.
interceptor.  A  device  used  to  separate  deleterious,  hazardous  or  undesirable matter from normal wastes, retaining it while permitting normal sewage or liquid wastes to discharge into the drainage system by gravity.
liquid waste. The discharge from any fixture, appliance or appurtenance in con- nection with a plumbing system that does not receive faecal matter.
manhole. Same as access chamber.
mixing  valve.  A  valve or  faucet  that  mixes  liquids  using  automatic  or  manual regulation.
negative pressure. Pressure below the external atmosphere pressure, taking into account the local elevation.
non-return valve. Same as check valve.
oil trap. An interceptor used to retain oil and prevent it passing into sewers.
overflow system. An outlet or receptacle designed to collect surplus liquids after the desired amount has been received.

pH. The negative logarithm (base 10) of the hydrogen concentration. On the scale of 0 to 14, 7 is neutral, lower numbers are acidic, and higher numbers are basic. plumbing  fixture.  A  general  term  applied  to  any  plumbing  receptacle,  device
or appliance that can be temporarily or permanently fixed in place. It is con- nected to the drinking-water supply or to the drainage system either by an indirect or direct connection.
potable water. Same as drinking-water.
pressure  reduction  valve.  A  device  that  regulates  pressure  in  liquids  or  gases by  reducing  a  higher  pressure  to  a  definite  lower  pressure,  maintaining  the liquids or gases at a constant pressure.
pressure relief valve. A safety valve that is held closed by a spring or other means and automatically relieves the pressure in excess of its setting. See also tem- perature and pressure relief valve.
reclaimed  water.  Water  that  has  been  treated  so  that  its  quality  is  suitable  for particular  specified  purposes,  such  as  irrigation,  toilet  flushing  or  possibly drinking. Also called recycled water.
roof  drainage.  Conveyance  of  rainwater  from  a  sloping  roof  by  gutters  and downspouts, or from a vertical roof by pipe, to a surface water sewer or suit- able soakaway.
safe or potable drinking-water. Water that is intended for human consumption and suitable for all usual domestic uses, complying with the requirements of the  WHO  Guidelines  for  Drinking-water  Quality  or  appropriate  national standards established by the regulating authority.
sanitary building drain. A building drain that conveys only domestic or indus- trial waste, not storm water.
sanitary building sewer. A building sewer that conveys only domestic or indus- trial waste, not storm water.
sanitary sewer. A sewer intended to receive only domestic or industrial waste, not storm water.
sewage. Liquid waste and wastewater generated by residential and commerical sources and carried in sewers.
sewer. A channel or conduit, usually subterranean, for carrying off water and waste matter, such as surface water from rainfall, household waste from sinks and  baths,  and  wastewater  from  industrial  works.  See  also  building  sewer; sanitary sewer.
sewerage. The works comprising a sewer system, pumping stations, treatment works and all other works necessary to the collection, treatment and disposal of sewage.
sewer system. System including a building sewer, a private or public sewer, and a private or public sewage disposal system.
stop valve. A key control valve capable of shutting off the whole plumbing sys- tem that is under mains pressure.
storm drain. The part of the horizontal piping and its branches that directs sub- soil and surface drainage from areas, courts, roofs or yards to a building or storm sewer.
storm water drainage. Drainage of rainwater from roofs, courtyards and paved areas and conveying it away from buildings to a place of disposal.
subsoil drain. A drain that collects subsurface or seepage water and conveys it to a place of disposal.
temperature and pressure relief valve. A device that controls both temperature and  pressure,  releasing  water  to  atmosphere  at  predetermined  settings.  See also pressure relief valve.
trap.  A  device  or  fitting  that  provides  a  liquid  seal  to  prevent  the  emission  of sewer  gases  without  materially  retarding  the  flow  of  sewage  or  wastewater through it.
vent.  Any  pipe  provided  to  ventilate  a  plumbing  system  in  order  to  prevent backpressure  and  trap  siphonage,  or  to  equalize  the  air  pressure  within  the drainage system.
waste. See liquid waste; industrial waste.
wastewater. The spent or used water of a community, including from residences and commercial buildings, and any surface water or storm water that contains dissolved or suspended matter.
water closet. A water-flushing device or fixture designed to receive human waste directly from the user and discharge it to the drainage system.

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